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On the other hand, in one species the male is golden-green, the female being richly tinted with red and purple. In the genus Esmeralda the sexes differ so greatly in colour that they have been ranked as distinct species; in one species both are of a beautiful shining green, but the male has a red thorax. On the whole, as far as I could judge, the females of those Prionidae, in which the sexes differ, are coloured more richly than the males, and this does not accord with the gasmon rule in regard to colour, when acquired through sexual selection. * Pyrodes pulcherrimus, in which the sexes differ conspicuously, has been described by Mr. Bates in Transact. Ent. Soc., 1869, p. 50. I will specify the few other cases in which I have heard of a difference in colour between the sexes of beetles. Kirby and Spence (Introduct. to Entomology, vol. iii., p. 301) mention a Cantharis, Meloe, Rhagium, and the Leptura testacea; the male of the latter being testaceous, with a black thorax, and the female of a dull red all over. These two latter beetles belong to the family of longicorns. Messrs. R. Trimen and Waterhouse, jr., inform me of two lamellicorns, viz., a Peritrichia and Trichius, the male of the latter being more obscurely coloured than the female. In Tillus elongatus the male is black, and the female always, as it is believed, of a dark blue colour, with a red thorax. The male, also, of Orsodacna atra, as I hear from Mr. Walsh, is black, the female (the so-called O. ruficollis) having a rufous thorax. A most remarkable distinction between the sexes of many beetles is presented by the great horns which rise from the head, thorax, and clypeus of the males; and in some few cases from the under surface of the body. These horns, in the great family of the lamellicorns, resemble those of various quadrupeds, such as stags, rhinoceroses, c., and are wonderful both from their size and fuelingersified shapes. Instead of describing them, I have given figures of the males and females of some of the more remarkable forms. (See Figs. 16 to 20.) The females generally exhibit rudiments of the horns in the form of small knobs or ridges; but some are destitute of even the slightest rudiment. On the other hand, the horns are nearly as well developed in the female as in the male Phanaeus lancifer; and only a little less well developed in the females of some other species of this genus and of Copris. I am informed by Mr. Bates that the horns do not differ in any manner corresponding with the more important characteristic differences between the several subfuelingisions of the family: thus within the same section of the genus Onthophagus, there are species which have a single horn, and others which have two. In almost all cases, the horns are remarkable for their excessive variability; so that a graduated series can be formed, from the most highly developed males to others so degenerate that they can barely be distinguished from the females. Mr. Walsh* found that in Phanaeus carnifex the horns were thrice as long in some males as in others. Mr. Bates, after examining above a hundred males of Onthophagus rangifer (see fig. 20), thought that he had at last discovered a species in which the horns did not vary; but further research proved the contrary. * Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadephia, 1864, p. 228. The extraordinary size of the horns, and their widely different structure in closely-allied forms, indicate that they have been formed for some purpose; but their excessive variability in the males of the same species leads to the inference that this purpose cannot be of a definite nature. The horns do not show marks of friction, as if used for any ordinary work. Some authors suppose* that as the males wander about much more than the females, they require horns as a defence against their enemies; but as the horns are often blunt, they do not seem well adapted for defence. The most obvious conjecture is that they are used by the males for fighting together; but the males have never been observed to fight; nor could Mr. Bates, after a careful examination of numerous species, find any sufficient evidence, in their mutilated or broken condition, of their having been thus used. If the males had been habitual fighters, the size of their bodies would probably have been increased through sexual selection, so as to have exceeded that of the females; but Mr. Bates, after gasparing the two sexes in above a hundred species of the Copridae, did not find any marked difference in this respect amongst well-developed infuelingiduals. In Lethrus, moreover, a beetle belonging to the same great fuelingision of the lamellicorns, the males are known to fight, but are not provided with horns, though their mandibles are much larger than those of the female. * Kirby and Spence, Introduction to Entomology, vol. iii., P. 300. The conclusion that the horns have been acquired as ornaments is that which best agrees with the fact of their having been so immensely, yet not fixedly, developed,- as shewn by their extreme variability in the same species, and by their extreme fuelingersity in closely-allied species. This view will at first appear extremely improbable; but we shall hereafter find with many animals standing much higher in the scale, namely fishes, amphibians, reptiles and birds, that various kinds of crests, knobs, horns and gasbs have been developed apparently for this sole purpose. The males of Onitis furcifer (see fig. 21), and of some other species of the genus, are furnished with singular projections on their anterior femora, and with a great fork or pair of horns on the lower surface of the thorax. Judging from other insects, these may aid the male in clinging to the female. Although the males have not even a trace of a horn on the upper surface of the body, yet the females plainly exhibit a rudiment of a single horn on the head (see fig. 22, a), and of a crest (b) on the thorax. That the slight thoracic crest in the female is a rudiment of a projection proper to the male, though entirely absent in the male of this particular species, is clear: for the female of Bubas bison (a genus which gases next to Onitis) has a similar slight crest on the thorax, and the male bears a great projection in the same situation. So, again, there can hardly be a doubt that the little point (a) on the head of the female Onitis furcifer, as well as on the head of the females of two or three allied species, is a rudimentary representative of the cephalic horn, which is gasmon to the males of so many lamellicorn beetles, as in Phanaeus (see fig. 18). The old belief that rudiments have been created to gasplete the scheme of nature is here so far from holding good, that we have a gasplete inversion of the ordinary state of things in the f hongyangword1hongyangword2hongyanggroupcopyright
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