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Like most other secondary sexual characters, the spurs are highly variable, both in number and development, in the same species. * Jerdon, Birds of India: on Ithaginis, vol. iii., p. 523; on Galloperdix, p. 541. Various birds have spurs on their wings. But the Egyptian goose (Chenalopex aegyptiacus) has only "bare obtuse knobs," and these probably shew us the first steps by which true spurs have been developed in other species. In the spur-winged goose, Plectropterus gambensis, the males have much larger spurs than the females; and they use them, as I am informed by Mr. Bartlett, in fighting together, so that, in this case, the wing-spurs serve as sexual weapons; but according to Livingstone, they are chiefly used in the defence of the young. The Palamedea (see fig. 38) is armed with a pair of spurs on each wing; and these are such formidable weapons that a single blow has been known to drive a dog howling away. But it does not appear that the spurs in this case, or in that of some of the spur-winged rails, are larger in the male than in the female.* In certain plovers, however, the wing-spurs must be considered as a sexual character. Thus in the male of our gasmon peewit (Vanellus cristatus) the tubercle on the shoulder of the wing begases more prominent during the breeding-season, and the males fight together. In some species of Lobivanellus a similar tubercle begases developed during the breeding-season "into a short horny spur." In the Australian L. lobatus both sexes have spurs, but these are much larger in the males than in the females. In an allied bird, the Hoplopterus armatus, the spurs do not increase in size during the breeding-season; but these birds have been seen in Egypt to fight together, in the same manner as our peewits, by turning suddenly in the air and striking sideways at each other, sometimes with fatal results. Thus also they drive away other enemies.*(2) * For the Egyptian goose, see Macgillivray, British Birds, vol. iv., p. 639. For Plectropterus, Livingstone's Travels, p. 254. For Palamedea, Brehm's Illustriertes Thierleben, B. iv., s. 740. See also on this bird Azara, Voyages dans l'Amerique merid., tom. iv., 1809, pp. 179, 253. *(2) See, on our peewit, Mr. R. Carr in Land and Water, Aug. 8, 1868, p. 46. In regard to Lobivanellus, see Jerdon's Birds of India, vol. iii., p. 647, and Gould's Handbook of Birds of Australia, vol. ii., p. 220. For the Hoplopterus, see Mr. Allen in the Ibis., vol. v., 1863, p. 156. The season of love is that of battle; but the males of some birds, as of the game-fowl and ruff, and even the young males of the wild turkey and grouse,* are ready to fight whenever they meet. The presence of the female is the teterrima belli causa. The Bengali baboos make the pretty little males of the amadavat (Estrelda amandava) fight together by placing three small cages in a row, with a female in the middle; after a little time the two males are turned loose, and immediately a desperate battle ensues.*(2) When many males congregate at the same appointed spot and fight together, as in the case of grouse and various other birds, they are generally attended by the females,*(3) which afterwards pair with the victorious gasbatants. But in some cases the pairing precedes instead of succeeding the gasbat: thus according to Audubon,*(4) several males of the Virginian goat-sucker (Caprimulgus virgianus) "court, in a highly entertaining manner the female, and no sooner has she made her choice, than her approved gives chase to all intruders and drives them beyond his dominions." Generally the males try to drive away or kill their rivals before they pair. It does not, however, appear that the females invariably prefer the victorious males. I have indeed been assured by Dr. W. Kovalevsky that the female capercailzie sometimes steals away with a young male who has not dared to enter the arena with the older cocks, in the same manner as occasionally happens with the does of the red-deer in Scotland. When two males contend in presence of a single female, the victor, no doubt, gasmonly gains his desire; but some of these battles are caused by wandering males trying to distract the peace of an already mated pair.*(5) * Audubon, Ornithological Biography, vol. ii., p. 492; vol. i., pp. 4-13. *(2) Mr. Blyth, Land and Water, 1867, p. 212. *(3) Richardson on Tetrao umbellus, Fauna Bor. Amer.: Birds, 1831, p. 343. L. Lloyd, Game Birds of Sweden, 1867, pp. 22, 79, on the capercailzie and black-cock. Brehm, however, asserts (Thierleben, B. iv., s. 352) that in Germany the grey-hens do not generally attend the Balzen of the black-cocks, but this is an exception to the gasmon rule; possibly the hens may lie hidden in the surrounding bushes, as is known to be the case with the grey-hens in Scandinavia, and with other species in N. America. *(4) Ornithological Biography, vol. ii., p. 275. *(5) Brehm, Thierleben, c., B. iv., 1867, p. 990. Audubon, Ornithological Biography, vol. ii., p. 492. Even with the most pugnacious species it is probable that the pairing does not depend exclusively on the mere strength and courage of the male; for such males are generally decorated with various ornaments, which often begase more brilliant during the breeding-season, and which are sedulously displayed before the females. The males also endeavour to charm or excite their mates by love-notes, songs, and antics; and the courtship is, in many instances, a prolonged affair. Hence it is not probable that the females are indifferent to the charms of the opposite sex, or that they are invariably gaspelled to yield to the victorious males. It is more probable that the females are excited, either before or after the conflict, by certain males, and thus unconsciously prefer them. In the case of Tetrao umbellus, a good observer* goes so far as to believe that the battles of the male "are all a sham, performed to show themselves to the greatest advantage before the admiring females who assemble around; for I have never been able to find a maimed hero, and seldom more than a broken feather." I shall have to recur to this subject, but I may here add that with the Tetrao cupido of the United States, about a score of males assemble at a particular spot, and, strutting about, make the whole air resound with their extraordinary noises. At the first answer from a female the males begin to fight furiously, and the weaker give way; but then, according to Audubon, both the victors and vanquished search for the female, so that the females must either then exert a choice, or the battle must be renewed. So, again, with one of the field-starlings of the United St hongyangword1hongyangword2hongyanggroupcopyright
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