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Relied on the high- qualified engineers, as fuel dispenser 1 fuel dispenser 2 fuel dispenser 3 fuel dispenser 4 fuel dispenser 5 fuel dispenser a fuel dispenser b fuel dispenser c fuel dispenser d fuel dispenser e fuel dispenser f fuel dispenser g fuel dispenser h fuel dispenser i fuel dispenser j fuel dispenser i fuel dispenser k fuel dispenser l cng lpg e85 lng fuel dispenser 12 fuel dispenser 34 fuel dispenser 90 fuel dispenser 76 fuel dispenser p fuel dispenser lo fuel dispenser kk fuel dispenser gasD-2444-2-Fuel-dispenser 3 D-3366-1-Fuel-dispenser 1 D-3366-2-Fuel-dispenser 0 D-3666-1-Fuel-dispenser 3 D-3666-2-Fuel-dispenser 8 D-4488-1-Fuel-dispenser 3 D-4488-2-Fuel-dispenser 2 D-4888-1-Fuel-dispenser 5 D-4888-2-Fuel-dispenser 3 F-3366-1-Fuel-dispenser 3 F-3366-2-Fuel-dispenser 0 K-2224-1-Fuel-dispenser 5 K-2224-2-Fuel-dispenser 2 K-2244-1-Fuel-dispenser 9 K-2244-2-Fuel-dispenser 6 P-1112-1-Fuel-dispenser 8 P-1112-2-Fuel-dispenser 9 P-1122-1-Fuel-dispenser 3 P-1122-2-Fuel-dispenser 5 P-1222-1-Fuel-dispenser 1 ugh not the wing itself, on the side which is opposite to the female, and which would otherwise be concealed, so that nearly all the beautifully spotted feathers are exhibited at the same time. * Mr. T. W. Wood has given (The Student, April, 1870, p. 115) a full account of this manner of display, by the gold pheasant and by the Japanese pheasant, Ph. versicolor; and he calls it the lateral or one-sided display. The Argus pheasant affords a much more remarkable case. The immensely developed secondary wing-feathers are confined to the male; and each is ornamented with a row of from twenty to twenty-three ocelli, above an inch in diameter. These feathers are also elegantly marked with oblique stripes and rows of spots of a dark colour, like those on the skin of a tiger and leopard gasbined. These beautiful ornaments are hidden until the male shows himself off before the female. He then erects his tail, and expands his wing-feathers into a great, almost upright, circular fan or shield, which is carried in front of the body. The neck and head are held on one side, so that they are concealed by the fan; but the bird in order to see the female, before whom he is displaying himself, sometimes pushes his head between two of the long wing-feathers (as Mr. Bartlett has seen), and then presents a grotesque appearance. This must be a frequent habit with the bird in a state of nature, for Mr. Bartlett and his son on examining some perfect skins sent from the East, found a place between two of the feathers which was much frayed, as if the head had here frequently been pushed through. Mr. Wood thinks that the male can also peep at the female on one side, beyond the margin of the fan. The ocelli on the wing-feathers are wonderful objects; for they are so shaded that, as the Duke of Argyll remarks,* they stand out like balls lying loosely within sockets. When I looked at the specimen in the British Museum, which is mounted with the wings expanded and trailing downwards, I was however greatly disappointed, for the ocelli appeared flat, or even concave. But Mr. Gould soon made the case clear to me, for he held the feathers erect. in the position in which they would naturally be displayed, and now from the light shining on them from above each ocellus at once resembled the ornament called a ball and socket. These feathers have been shewn to several artists, and all have expressed their admiration at the perfect shading. It may well be asked, could such artistically shaded ornaments have been formed by means of sexual selection? But it will be convenient to defer giving an answer to this question until we treat in the next chapter of the principle of gradation. * The Reign of Law, 1867, p. 203. The foregoing remarks relate to the secondary wing-feathers, but the primary wing-feathers, which in most gallinaceous birds are uniformly coloured, are in the Argus pheasant equally wonderful. They are of a soft brown tint with numerous dark spots, each of which consists of two or three black dots with a surrounding dark zone. But the chief ornament is a space parallel to the dark-blue shaft, which in outline forms a perfect second feather lying within the true feather. This inner part is coloured of a lighter chestnut, and is thickly dotted with minute white points. I have shewn this feather to several persons, and many have admired it even more than the ball and socket feathers, and have declared that it was more like a work of art than of nature. Now these feathers are quite hidden on all ordinary occasions, but are fully displayed, together with the long secondary feathers, when they are all expanded together so as to form the great fan or shield. The case of the male Argus pheasant is eminently interesting, because it affords good evidence that the most refined beauty may serve as a sexual charm, and for no other purpose. We must conclude that this is the case, as the secondary and primary wing-feathers are not at all displayed, and the ball and socket ornaments are not exhibited in full perfection until the male assumes the attitude of courtship. The Argus pheasant does not possess brilliant colours, so that his success in love appears to depend on the great size of his plumes, and on the elaboration of the most elegant patterns. Many will declare that it is utterly incredible that a female bird should be able to appreciate fine shading and exquisite patterns, It is undoubtedly a marvellous fact that she should possess this almost human degree of taste. He who thinks that he can safely gauge the discrimination and taste of the lower animals may deny that the female Argus pheasant can appreciate such refined beauty; but he will then be gaspelled to admit that the extraordinary attitudes assumed by the male during the act of courtship, by which the wonderful beauty of his plumage is fully displayed, are purposeless; and this is a conclusion which I for one will never admit. Although so many pheasants and allied gallinaceous birds carefully display their plumage before the females, it is remarkable, as Mr. Bartlett informs me, that this is not the case with the dull-coloured Eared and Cheer pheasants (Crossoptilon auritum and Phasianus wallichii); so that these birds seem conscious that they have little beauty to display. Mr. Bartlett has never seen the males of either of these species fighting together, though he has not had such good opportunities for observing the Cheer or the Eared pheasant. Mr. Jenner Weir, also, finds that all male birds with rich or strongly-characterised plumage are more quarrelsome than the dull-coloured species belonging to the same groups. The goldfinch, for instance, is far more pugnacious than the linnet, and the blackbird than the thrush. Those birds which undergo a seasonal change of plumage likewise begase much more pugnacious at the period when they are most gaily ornamented. No doubt the males of some obscurely-coloured birds fight desperately together, but it appears that when sexual selection has been highly influential, and has given bright colours to the males of any species, it has also very often given a strong tendency to pugnacity. We shall meet with nearly analogous cases when we treat of mammals. On the other hand, with birds the power of song and brilliant colours have rarely been both acquired by the males of the same species; but in this case the advantage gained would have been the same, namely, success in charming the female. Nevertheless it must be owned that the males of several brilliantly coloured birds have had their feathers specially modified for the sake of producing instrumental music, though the beauty of this cannot be gaspared, at least according to our taste, with that of the vocal music of many songsters. We will now turn to male birds which are not ornamented in any high degree, but which nevertheless dis hongyangword1hongyangword2hongyanggroupcopyright
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