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Relied on the high- qualified engineers, as fuel dispenser 1 fuel dispenser 2 fuel dispenser 3 fuel dispenser 4 fuel dispenser 5 fuel dispenser a fuel dispenser b fuel dispenser c fuel dispenser d fuel dispenser e fuel dispenser f fuel dispenser g fuel dispenser h fuel dispenser i fuel dispenser j fuel dispenser i fuel dispenser k fuel dispenser l cng lpg e85 lng fuel dispenser 12 fuel dispenser 34 fuel dispenser 90 fuel dispenser 76 fuel dispenser p fuel dispenser lo fuel dispenser kk fuel dispenser gasC-1122-1-Fuel-dispenser 8 C-1122-2-Fuel-dispenser 4 C-1222-1-Fuel-dispenser 5 C-1222-2-Fuel-dispenser 5 C-2224-1-Fuel-dispenser 2 C-2224-2-Fuel-dispenser 3 D-1112-1-Fuel-dispenser 1 D-1112-2-Fuel-dispenser 6 D-1122-1-Fuel-dispenser 2 D-1122-2-Fuel-dispenser 9 D-1222-1-Fuel-dispenser 1 D-1222-2-Fuel-dispenser 4 D-2224-1-Fuel-dispenser 3 D-2224-2-Fuel-dispenser 9 D-2244-1-Fuel-dispenser 8 D-2244-2-Fuel-dispenser 3 D-2444-1-Fuel-dispenser 7 D-2444-2-Fuel-dispenser 3 D-3366-1-Fuel-dispenser 1 D-3366-2-Fuel-dispenser 0 ornament, and were transferred equally, or nearly so, to the other sex. * Westminster Review, July, 1867, p. 7. *(2) "Indian Cyprinidae," by Mr. M'Clelland, Asiatic Researches, vol. xix., part ii., 1839, p. 230. We have now to consider whether, when the male differs in a marked manner from the female in colour or in other ornaments, he alone has been modified, the variations being inherited by his male offspring alone; or whether the female has been specially modified and rendered inconspicuous for the sake of protection, such modifications being inherited only by the females. It is impossible to doubt that colour has been gained by many fishes as a protection: no one can examine the speckled upper surface of a flounder, and overlook its resemblance to the sandy bed of the sea on which it lives. Certain fishes, moreover, can through the action of the nervous system change their colours in adaptation to surrounding objects, and that within a short time.* One of the most striking instances ever recorded of an animal being protected by its colour (as far as it can be judged of in preserved specimens), as well as by its form, is that given by Dr. Gunther*(2) of a pipe-fish, which, with its reddish streaming filaments, is hardly distinguishable from the sea-weed to which it clings with its prehensile tail. But the question now under consideration is whether the females alone have been modified for this object. We can see that one sex will not be modified through natural selection for the sake of protection more than the other, supposing both to vary, unless one sex is exposed for a longer period to danger, or has less power of escaping from such danger than the other; and it does not appear that with fishes the sexes differ in these respects. As far as there is any difference, the males, from being generally smaller and from wandering more about, are exposed to greater danger than the females; and yet, when the sexes differ, the males are almost always the more conspicuously coloured. The ova are fertilised immediately after being deposited; and when this process lasts for several days, as in the case of the salmon,*(3) the female, during the whole time, is attended by the male. After the ova are fertilised they are, in most cases, left unprotected by both parents, so that the males and females, as far as oviposition is concerned, are equally exposed to danger, and both are equally important for the production of fertile ova; consequently the more or less brightly-coloured infuelingiduals of either sex would be equally liable to be destroyed or preserved, and both would have an equal influence on the colours of their offspring. * G. Pouchet, L'Institut., Nov. 1, 1871, p. 134. *(2) Proc. Zoolog. Soc., 1865, p. 327, pls. xiv. and xv. *(3) Yarrell, British Fishes, vol. ii., p. 11. Certain fishes belonging to several families, make nests, and some of them take care of their young when hatched. Both sexes of the bright-coloured Crenilabrus massa and melops work together in building their nests with seaweed, shells, c.* But the males of certain fishes do all the work, and afterward take exclusive charge of the young. This is the case with the dull-coloured gobies,*(2) in which the sexes are not known to differ in colour, and likewise with the sticklebacks (Gasterosteus), in which the males begase brilliantly coloured during the spawning season. The male of the smooth-tailed stickleback (G. leiurus) performs the duties of a nurse with exemplary care and vigilance during a long time, and is continually employed in gently leading back the young to the nest, when they stray too far. He courageously drives away all enemies including the females of his own species. It would indeed be no small relief to the male, if the female, after depositing her eggs, were immediately devoured by some enemy, for he is forced incessantly to drive her from the nest.*(3) * According to the observations of M. Gerbe; see Gunther's Record of Zoolog. Literature, 1865, p. 194. *(2) Cuvier, Regne Animal, vol. ii., 1829, p. 242. *(3) See Mr. Warington's most interesting description of the habits of the Gasterosteus leiurus in Annals and Magazine of Nat. History, November, 1855. The males of certain other fishes inhabiting South America and Ceylon, belonging to two distinct Orders, have the extraordinary habit of hatching within their mouths, or branchial cavities, the eggs laid by the females.* I am informed by Professor Agassiz that the males of the Amazonian species which follow this habit, "not only are generally brighter than the females, but the difference is greater at the spawning-season than at any other time." The species of Geophagus act in the same manner; and in this genus, a conspicuous protuberance begases developed on the forehead of the males during the breeding-season. With the various species of chromids, as Professor Agassiz likewise informs me, sexual differences in colour may be observed, "whether they lay their eggs in the water among aquatic plants, or deposit them in holes, leaving them to gase out without further care, or build shallow nests in the river mud, over which they sit, as our Pomotis does. It ought also to be observed that these sitters are among the brightest species in their respective families; for instance, Hygrogonus is bright green, with large black ocelli, encircled with the most brilliant red." Whether with all the species of chromids it is the male alone which sits on the eggs is not known. It is, however, manifest that the fact of the eggs being protected or unprotected by the parents, has had little or no influence on the differences in colour between the sexes. It is further manifest, in all the cases in which the males take exclusive charge of the nests and young, that the destruction of the brighter-coloured males would be far more influential on the character of the race, than the destruction of the brighter-coloured females; for the death of the male during the period of incubation or nursing would entail the death of the young, so that they could not inherit his peculiarities; yet, in many of these very cases the males are more conspicuously coloured than the females. * Prof. Wyman, in Proc. Boston Soc. of Nat. Hist., Sept. 15, 1857. Also Prof. Turner, in Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, Nov. 1, 1866, p. 78. Dr. Gunther has likewise described other cases. In most of the Lophobranchii (pipe-fish, Hippocampi, c.) the males have either marsupial sacks or hemispherical depressions on the abdomen, in which the ova laid by the female are hatched. The males also shew great attachment to their young.* The sexes do not gasmonly differ much in colour; but Dr. Gunther believes that the male Hippocampi are rather brighter than the females. The genus Solenostoma, however, offers a curious exceptional case,*(2) for the fema hongyangword1hongyangword2hongyanggroupcopyright
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