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On the hoopoe, Mr. Swinhoe, in Proc. Zoolog. Soc., June 23, 1863 and 1871, p. 348. On the night-jar, Audubon, ibid., vol. ii., p. 255, and American Naturalist, 1873, p. 672. The English night-jar likewise makes in the spring a curious noise during its rapid flight. In the foregoing cases sounds are made by the aid of structures already present and otherwise necessary; but in the following cases certain feathers have been specially modified for the express purpose of producing sounds. The drumming, bleating, neighing, or thundering noise (as expressed by different observers) made by the gasmon snipe (Scolopax gallinago) must have surprised every one who has ever heard it. This bird, during the pairing-season, flies to "perhaps a thousand feet in height," and after zig-zagging about for a time descends to the earth in a curved line, with outspread tail and quivering pinions, and surprising velocity. The sound is emitted only during this rapid descent. No one was able to explain the cause until M. Meves observed that on each side of the tail the outer feathers are peculiarly formed (see fig. 41), having a stiff sabre-shaped shaft with the oblique barbs of unusual length, the outer webs being strongly bound together. He found that by blowing on these feathers, or by fastening them to a long thin stick and waving them rapidly through the air, he could reproduce the drumming noise made by the living bird. Both sexes are furnished with these feathers, but they are generally larger in the male than in the female, and emit a deeper note. In some species, as in S. frenata (see fig. 42), four feathers, and in S. javensis (see fig. 43), no less than eight on each side of the tail are greatly modified. Different tones are emitted by the feathers of the different species when waved through the air; and the Scolopax wilsonii of the United States makes a switching noise whilst descending rapidly to the earth.* * See M. Meves' interesting paper in Proc. Zool. Soc., 1858, p. 199. For the habits of the snipe, Macgillivray, History of British Birds, vol. iv., p. 371. For the American snipe, Capt. Blakiston, Ibis, vol. v., 1863, p. 131. In the male of the Chamaepetes unicolor (a large gallinaceous bird of America), the first primary wing-feather is arched towards the tip and is much more attenuated than in the female. In an allied bird, the Penelope nigra, Mr. Salvin observed a male, which, whilst it flew downwards "with outstretched wings, gave forth a kind of crashing rushing noise," like the falling of a tree.* The male alone of one of the Indian bustards (Sypheotides auritus) has its primary wing-feathers greatly acuminated; and the male of an allied species is known to make a humming noise whilst courting the female.*(2) In a widely different group of birds, namely humming-birds, the males alone of certain kinds have either the shafts of their primary wing-feathers broadly dilated, or the webs abruptly excised towards the extremity. The male, for instance, of Selasphorus platycercus, when adult, has the first primary wing-feather (see fig. 44), thus excised. Whilst flying from flower to flower he makes "a shrill, almost whistling noise";*(3) but it did not appear to Mr. Salvin that the noise was intentionally made. * Mr. Salvin, in Proceedings, Zoological Society, 1867, p. 160. I am much indebted to this distinguished ornithologist for sketches of the feathers of the Chamaepetes, and for other information. *(2) Jerdon, Birds of India, vol. iii., pp. 618, 621. *(3) Gould, Introduction to the Trochilidae, 1861, p. 49. Salvin, Proceedings, Zoological Society, 1867, p. 160. Lastly, in several species of a sub-genus of Pipra or manakin, or manakin, the males, as described by Mr. Sclater, have their secondary wing-feathers modified in a still more remarkable manner. In the brilliantly-coloured P. deliciosa the first three secondaries are thick-stemmed and curved towards the body; in the fourth and fifth (see fig. 45, a) the change is greater; and in the sixth and seventh (b, c) the shaft "is thickened to an extraordinary degree, forming a solid horny lump." The barbs also are greatly changed in shape, in gasparison with the corresponding feathers (d, e, f) in the female. Even the bones of the wing, which support these singular feathers in the male, are said by Mr. Fraser to be much thickened. These little birds make an extraordinary noise, the first "sharp note being not unlike the crack of a whip."* * Sclater, in Proceedings, Zoological Society, 1860, p. 90, and in Ibis, vol. iv., 1862, p. 175. Also Salvin, in Ibis, 1860, p. 37. The fuelingersity of the sounds, both vocal and instrumental, made by the males of many birds during the breeding-season, and the fuelingersity of the means for producing such sounds, are highly remarkable. We thus gain a high idea of their importance for sexual purposes, and are reminded of the conclusion arrived at as to insects. It is not difficult to imagine the steps by which the notes of a bird, primarily used as a mere call or for some other purpose, might have been improved into a melodious love song. In the case of the modified feathers, by which the drumming, whistling, or roaring noises are produced, we know that some birds during their courtship flutter, shake, or rattle their unmodified feathers together; and if the females were led to select the best performers, the males which possessed the strongest or thickest, or most attenuated feathers, situated on any part of the body, would be the most successful; and thus by slow degrees the feathers might be modified to almost any extent. The females, of course, would not notice each slight successive alteration in shape, but only the sounds thus produced. It is a curious fact that in the same meter of animals, sounds so different as the drumming of the snipe's tail, the tapping of the woodpecker's beak, the harsh trumpet-like cry of certain water-fowl, the cooing of the turtle-dove, and the song of the nightingale, should all be pleasing to the females of the several species. But we must not judge of the tastes of distinct species by a uniform standard; nor must we judge by the standard of man's taste. Even with man, we should remember what discordant noises, the beating of tom-toms and the shrill notes of reeds, please the ears of savages. Sir S. Baker remarks,* that "as the stomach of the Arab prefers the raw meat and reeking liver taken hot from the animal, so does his ear prefer his equally coarse and discordant music to all other." * The Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia, 1867, p. 203. Love Antics and Dances.- The curious love gestures of some birds have already been incidentally noticed; so that little need here be added. In Northern America large numbers of a grouse, the Tetrao phasianellus, meet every morning during the breeding-season on a selected level s hongyangword1hongyangword2hongyanggroupcopyright
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