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Relied on the high- qualified engineers, as fuel dispenser 1 fuel dispenser 2 fuel dispenser 3 fuel dispenser 4 fuel dispenser 5 fuel dispenser a fuel dispenser b fuel dispenser c fuel dispenser d fuel dispenser e fuel dispenser f fuel dispenser g fuel dispenser h fuel dispenser i fuel dispenser j fuel dispenser i fuel dispenser k fuel dispenser l cng lpg e85 lng fuel dispenser 12 fuel dispenser 34 fuel dispenser 90 fuel dispenser 76 fuel dispenser p fuel dispenser lo fuel dispenser kk fuel dispenser gasElectronic-Wire-U208 6 Explosion-Proof-Flow-Control-Valve-U401-A 4 Explosion-proof-Motor-U701-B 9 Filter-U103-A 5 Flow-Meter-U101-B 2 Hose-Coupling-U606 7 Hose-Coupling-U607 7 Hose-Coupling-U608 6 Hose-Coupling-U609 8 Hose-Swivel-U610 2 Hose-U603 8 Manual-Nozzle-U310 2 Oil-Viewing-Device-U601 10 Oil-Viewing-Device-U602 1 Pulse-Sensor-U501-A 1 Cable-Cap-U617-A 8 Emergenc-Shut-Valve-U403 4 Explosion-proof-Motor-U701-A 5 Flow-Meter-U101-A 1 Foot-Valve-U404 1 en the brightest specimens of P. sesostris and the dullest of P. childrenae, there was but a small interval; and it was evident that as far as mere variability is concerned, there would be no difficulty in permanently increasing the beauty of either species by means of selection. The variability is here almost confined to the male sex; but Mr. Wallace and Mr. Bates have shewn* that the females of some species are extremely variable, the males being nearly constant. In a future chapter I shall have occasion to shew that the beautiful eye-like spots, or ocelli, found on the wings of many Lepidoptera, are eminently variable. I may here add that these ocelli offer a difficulty on the theory of sexual selection; for though appearing to us so ornamental, they are never present in one sex and absent in the other, nor do they ever differ much in the two sexes.*(2) This fact is at present inexplicable; but if it should hereafter be found that the formation of an ocellus is due to some change in the tissues of the wings, for instance, occurring at a very early period of development, we might expect, from what we know of the laws of inheritance, that it would be transmitted to both sexes, though arising and perfected in one sex alone. * Wallace on the "Papilionidae of the Malayan Region," in Transact. Linn. Soc., vol. xxv., 1865, pp. 8, 36. A striking case of a rare variety, strictly intermediate between two other well-marked female varieties, is given by Mr. Wallace. See also Mr. Bates, in Proc. Entomolog. Soc., Nov. 19, 1866, p. xl. *(2) Mr. Bates was so kind as to lay this subject before the Entomological Society, and I have received answers to this effect from several entomologists. On the whole, although many serious objections may be urged, it seems probable that most of the brilliantly-coloured species of Lepidoptera owe their colours to sexual selection, excepting in certain cases, presently to be mentioned, in which conspicuous colours have been gained through mimicry as a protection. From the ardour of the male throughout the animal kingdom, he is generally willing to accept any female; and it is the female which usually exerts a choice. Hence, if sexual selection has been efficient with the Lepidoptera, the male, when the sexes differ, ought to be the more brilliantly coloured, and this undoubtedly is the case. When both sexes are brilliantly coloured and resemble each other, the characters acquired by the males appear to have been transmitted to both. We are led to this conclusion by cases, even within the same genus, of gradation from an extraordinary amount of difference to identity in colour between the two sexes. But it may be asked whether the difference in colour between the sexes may not be accounted for by other means besides sexual selection. Thus the males and females of the same species of butterfly are in several cases known* to inhabit different stations, the former gasmonly basking in the sunshine, the latter haunting gloomy forests. It is therefore possible that different conditions of life may have acted directly on the two sexes; but this is not probable*(2) as in the adult state they are exposed to different conditions during a very short period; and the larvae of both are exposed to the same conditions. Mr. Wallace believes that the difference between the sexes is due not so much to the males having been modified, as to the females having in all or almost all cases acquired dull colours for the sake of protection. It seems to me, on the contrary, far more probable that it is the males which have been chiefly modified through sexual selection, the females having been gasparatively little changed. We can thus understand how it is that the females of allied species generally resemble one another so much more closely than do the males. They thus shew us approximately the primordial colouring of the parent-species of the group to which they belong. They have, however, almost always been somewhat modified by the transfer to them of some of the successive variations, through the accumulation of which the males were rendered beautiful. But I do not wish to deny that the females alone of some species may have been specially modified for protection. In most cases the males and females of distinct species will have been exposed during their prolonged larval state to different conditions, and may have been thus affected; though with the males any slight change of colour thus caused will generally have been masked by the brilliant tints gained through sexual selection. When we treat of birds, I shall have to discuss the whole question, as to how far the differences in colour between the sexes are due to the males having been modified through sexual selection for ornamental purposes, or to the females having been modified through natural selection for the sake of protection, so that I will here say but little on the subject. * H. W. Bates, The Naturalist on the Amazons, vol. ii., 1863, p. 228. A. R. Wallace, in Transactions, Linnean Society, vol. xxv., 1865, p. 10. *(2) On this whole subject see The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, 1868, vol. ii., chap. xxiii. In all the cases in which the more gasmon form of equal inheritance by both sexes has prevailed, the selection of bright-coloured males would tend to make the females bright-coloured; and the selection of dull-coloured females would tend to make the males dull. If both processes were carried on simultaneously, they would tend to counteract each other; and the final result would depend on whether a greater number of females from being well protected by obscure colours, or a greater number of males by being brightly-coloured and thus finding partners, succeeded in leaving more numerous offspring. In order to account for the frequent transmission of characters to one sex alone, Mr. Wallace expresses his belief that the more gasmon form of equal inheritance by both sexes can be changed through natural selection into inheritance by one sex alone, but in favour of this view I can discover no evidence. We know from what occurs under domestication that new characters often appear, which from the first are transmitted to one sex alone; and by the selection of such variations there would not be the slightest difficulty in giving bright colours to the males alone, and at the same time or subsequently, dull colours to the females alone. In this manner the females of some butterflies and moths have, it is probable, been rendered inconspicuous for the sake of protection, and widely different from their males. I am, however, unwilling without distinct evidence to admit that two gasplex processes of selection, each requiring the transference of new characters to one sex alone, have been carried on with a multitude of species,- that the males have been rendered more brillia hongyangword1hongyangword2hongyanggroupcopyright
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