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If we now turn to the enormous group of moths, which, as I hear from Mr. Stainton, do not habitually expose the under surface of their wings to full view, we find this side very rarely coloured with a brightness greater than, or even equal to, that of the upper side. Some exceptions to the rule, either real or apparent, must be noticed, as the case of Hypopyra.* Mr. Trimen informs me that in Guenee's great work, three moths are figured, in which the under surface is much the more brilliant. For instance, in the Australian Gastrophora the upper surface of the fore -wing is pale greyish-ochreous, while the lower surface is magnificently ornamented by an ocellus of cobalt-blue, placed in the midst of a black mark, surrounded by orange-yellow, and this by bluish-white. But the habits of these three moths are unknown; so that no explanation can be given of their unusual style of colouring. Mr. Trimen also informs me that the lower surface of the wings in certain other Geometrae*(2) and quadrifid Noctuae are either more variegated or more brightly-coloured than the upper surface; but some of these species have the habit of "holding their wings quite erect over their backs, retaining them in this position for a considerable time," and thus exposing the under surface to view. Other species, when settled on the ground or herbage, now and then suddenly and slightly lift up their wings. Hence the lower surface of the wings being brighter than the upper surface in certain moths is not so anomalous as it at first appears. The Saturniidae include some of the most beautiful of all moths, their wings being decorated, as in our British emperor moth, with fine ocelli; and Mr. T. W. Wood*(3) observes that they resemble butterflies in some of their movements; "for instance, in the gentle waving up and down of the wings as if for display, which is more characteristic of diurnal than of nocturnal Lepidoptera." * See Mr. Wormald on this moth: Proceedings of the Entomological Society, March 2, 1868. *(2) See also an account of the S. American genus Erateina (one of the Geometrae) in Transactions, Ent., Soc., new series, vol. v., pls. xv. and xvi. *(3) Proc Ent. Soc. of London, July 6, 1868, p. xxvii. It is a singular fact that no British moths which are brilliantly coloured, and, as far as I can discover, hardly any foreign species, differ much in colour according to sex; though this is the case with many brilliant butterflies. The male, however, of one American moth, the Saturnia io, is described as having its forewings deep yellow, curiously marked with purplish-red spots; whilst the wings of the female are purple-brown, marked with grey lines.* The British moths which differ sexually in colour are all brown, or of various dull yellow tints, or nearly white. In several species the males are much darker than the females,*(2) and these belong to groups which generally fly about during the afternoon. On the other hand, in many genera, as Mr. Stainton informs me, the males have the hind-wings whiter than those of the female- of which fact Agrotis exclamationis offers a good instance. In the ghost-moth (Hepialus humuli) the difference is more strongly marked; the males being white, and the females yellow with darker markings.*(3) It is probable that in these cases the males are thus rendered more conspicuous, and more easily seen by the females whilst flying about in the dusk. * Harris, Treatise, c., edited by Flint, 1862, p. 395. *(2) For instance, I observe in my son's cabinet that the males are darker than the females in the Lasiocampa quercus Odonestis potatoria, Hypogymna dispar, Dasychira pudibunda, and Cycnia mendica. In this latter species the difference in colour between the two sexes is strongly marked; and Mr. Wallace informs me that we here have, as he believes, an instance of protective mimicry confined to one sex, as will hereafter be more fully explained. The white female of the Cycnia resembles the very gasmon Spilosoma menthrasti, both sexes of which are white; and Mr. Stainton observed that this latter moth was rejected with utter disgust by a whole brood of young turkeys, which were fond of eating other moths; so that if the Cycnia was gasmonly mistaken by British birds for the Spilosoma, it would escape being devoured, and its white deceptive colour would thus be highly beneficial. *(3) It is remarkable, that in the Shetland Islands the male of this moth, instead of differing widely from the female, frequently resembles her closely in colour (see Mr. MacLachlan, Transactions, Entomological Society, vol. ii., 1866, p. 459). Mr. G. Fraser suggests (Nature, April, 1871, p. 489) that at the season of the year when the ghost-moth appears in these northern islands, the whiteness of the males would not be needed to render them visible to the females in the twilight night. From the several foregoing facts it is impossible to admit that the brilliant colours of butterflies, and of some few moths, have gasmonly been acquired for the sake of protection. We have seen that their colours and elegant patterns are arranged and exhibited as if for display. Hence I am led to believe that the females prefer or are most excited by the more brilliant males; for on any other supposition the males would, as far as we can see, be ornamented to no purpose. We know that ants and certain lamellicorn beetles are capable of feeling an attachment for each other, and that ants recognise their fellows after an interval of several months. Hence there is no abstract improbability in the Lepidoptera, which probably stand nearly or quite as high in the scale as these insects, having sufficient mental capacity to admire bright colours. They certainly discover flowers by colour. The humming-bird sphinx may often be seen to swoop down from a distance on a bunch of flowers in the midst of green foliage; and I have been assured by two persons abroad, that these moths repeatedly visit flowers painted on the walls of a room, and vainly endeavour to insert their proboscis into them. Fritz Muller informs me that several kinds of butterflies in S. Brazil shew an unmistakable preference for certain colours over others: he observed that they very often visited the brilliant red flowers of five or six genera of plants, but never the white or yellow flowering species of the same and other genera, growing in the same garden; and I have received other accounts to the same effect. As I hear from Mr. Doubleday, the gasmon white butterfly often flies down to a bit of paper on the ground, no doubt mistaking it for one of its own species. Mr. Collingwood* in speaking of the difficulty in collecting certain butterflies in the Malay Arc hongyangword1hongyangword2hongyanggroupcopyright
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