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Nevertheless, it is probable that conspicuous colours are indirectly beneficial to many species, as a warning that they are unpalatable. For in certain other cases, beauty has been gained through the imitation of other beautiful species, which inhabit the same district and enjoy an immunity from attack by being in some way offensive to their enemies; but then we have to account for the beauty of the imitated species. * Einfluss der Isolirung auf die Artbildung, 1872, p. 58. As Mr. Walsh has remarked to me, the females of our orange-tip butterfly, above referred to, and of an American species (Anth. genutia) probably show us the primordial colours of the parent-species of the genus; for both sexes of four or five widely-distributed species are coloured in nearly the same manner. As in several previous cases, we may here infer that it is the males of Anth. cardamines and genutia which have departed from the usual type of the genus. In the Anth. sara from California, the orange-tips to the wings have been partially developed in the female; but they are paler than in the male, and slightly different in some other respects. In an allied Indian form, the Iphias glaucippe, the orange-tips are fully developed in both sexes. In this Iphias, as pointed out to me by Mr. A. Butler, the under surface of the wings marvellously resembles a pale-coloured leaf; and in our English orange-tip, the under surface resembles the flower-head of the wild parsley, on which the butterfly often rests at night.* The same reason which gaspels us to believe that the lower surfaces have here been coloured for the sake of protection, leads us to deny that the wings have been tipped with bright orange for the same purpose, especially when this character is confined to the males. * See the interesting observations by T. W. Wood, the Student, Sept., 1868, p. 81. Most moths rest motionless during the whole or greater part of the day with their wings depressed; and the whole upper surface shaded and coloured in an admirable manner, as Mr. Wallace has remarked, for escaping detection. The front-wings of the Bombycidae,* when at rest, generally overlap and conceal the hind-wings; so that the latter might be brightly coloured without much risk; and they are in fact often thus coloured. During flight, moths would often be able to escape from their enemies; nevertheless, as the hind-wings are then fully exposed to view, their bright must generally have been acquired at some little risk. But the following fact shews how cautious we ought to be in drawing conclusions on this head. The gasmon yellow under-wings (Triphoena) often fly about during the day or early evening, and are then conspicuous from the colour of their hind-wings. It would naturally be thought that this would be a source of danger; but Mr. J. Jenner Weir believes that it actually serves them as a means of escape, for birds strike at these brightly coloured and fragile surfaces, instead of at the body. For instance, Mr. Weir turned into his aviary a vigorous specimen of Triphoena pronuba, which was instantly pursued by a robin; but the bird's attention being caught by the coloured wings, the moth was not captured until after about fifty attempts, and small portions of the wings were repeatedly broken off. He tried the same experiment, in the open air, with a swallow and T. fimbria; but the large size of this moth probably interfered with its capture.*(2) We are thus reminded of a statement made by Mr. Wallace,*(3) namely, that in the Brazilian forests and Malayan islands, many gasmon and highly-decorated butterflies are weak flyers, though furnished with a broad expanse of wing; and they "are often captured with pierced and broken wings, as if they had been seized by birds, from which they had escaped: if the wings had been much smaller in proportion to the body, it seems probable that the insect would more frequently have been struck or pierced in a vital part, and thus the increased expanse of the wings may have been indirectly beneficial." * Mr. Wallace in Harwicke's Science Gossip, September, 1867, p. 193. *(2) See also, on this subject, Mr. Weir's paper in Transactions, Entomological Society, 1869, p. 23. *(3) Westminster Review, July, 1867, p. 16. Display.- The bright colours of many butterflies and of some moths are specially arranged for display, so that they may be readily seen. During the night colours are not visible, and there can be no doubt that the nocturnal moths, taken as a body, are much less gaily decorated than butterflies, all of which are diurnal in their habits. But the moths of certain families, such as the Zygaenidae, several Sphingidae, Uraniidae, some Arctiidae and Saturniidae, fly about during the day or early evening, and many of these are extremely beautiful, being far brighter coloured than the strictly nocturnal kinds. A few exceptional cases, however, of bright-coloured nocturnal species have been recorded.* * For instance, Lithosia; but Prof. Westwood (Modern Class. of Insects, vol. ii., p. 390) seems surprised at this case. On the relative colours of diurnal and nocturnal Lepidoptera, see ibid., pp. 333 and 392; also Harris, Treatise on the Insects of New England, 1842, p. 315. There is evidence of another kind in regard to display. Butterflies, as before remarked, elevate their wings when at rest, but whilst basking in the sunshine often alternately raise and depress them, thus exposing both surfaces to full view; and although the lower surface is often coloured in an obscure manner as a protection, yet in many species it is as highly decorated as the upper surface, and sometimes in a very different manner. In some tropical species the lower surface is even more brilliantly coloured than the upper.* In the English fritillaries (Argynnis) the lower surface alone is ornamented with shining silver. Nevertheless, as a general rule, the upper surface, which is probably more fully exposed, is coloured more brightly and fuelingersely than the lower. Hence the lower surface generally affords to entomologists the more useful character for detecting the affinities of the various species. Fritz Muller informs me that three species of Castnia are found near his house in S. Brazil: of two of them the hind-wings are obscure, and are always covered by the front-wings when these butterflies are at rest; but the third species has black hind-wings, beautifully spotted with red and white, and these are fully expanded and displayed whenever the butterfly rests. Other such cases could be added. * Such differences between the upper and lower surfaces of the wings of several species of Papilio may be hongyangword1hongyangword2hongyanggroupcopyright
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