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Relied on the high- qualified engineers, as fuel dispenser 1 fuel dispenser 2 fuel dispenser 3 fuel dispenser 4 fuel dispenser 5 fuel dispenser a fuel dispenser b fuel dispenser c fuel dispenser d fuel dispenser e fuel dispenser f fuel dispenser g fuel dispenser h fuel dispenser i fuel dispenser j fuel dispenser i fuel dispenser k fuel dispenser l cng lpg e85 lng fuel dispenser 12 fuel dispenser 34 fuel dispenser 90 fuel dispenser 76 fuel dispenser p fuel dispenser lo fuel dispenser kk fuel dispenser gasCorrugated-Compensator-U612-A 3 Display-Board-U203-A 2 Display-Board-U203-B 5 Electronic-Totalizer-S20 2 Electronic-Wire-U208 6 Explosion-Proof-Flow-Control-Valve-U401-A 4 Explosion-proof-Motor-U701-B 9 Filter-U103-A 5 Flow-Meter-U101-B 2 Hose-Coupling-U606 7 Hose-Coupling-U607 7 Hose-Coupling-U608 6 Hose-Coupling-U609 8 Hose-Swivel-U610 2 Hose-U603 8 Manual-Nozzle-U310 2 Oil-Viewing-Device-U601 10 Oil-Viewing-Device-U602 1 Pulse-Sensor-U501-A 1 Cable-Cap-U617-A 8 a nearly parallel case, for although the sexes of most of the species resemble each other, and are destitute of rich colours, yet in certain species, as in J. oenone, the male is rather more bright-coloured than the female, and in a few (for instance J. andremiaja) the male is so different from the female that he might be mistaken for an entirely distinct species. Another striking case was pointed out to me in the British Museum by Mr. A. Butler, namely, one of the tropical American Theclae, in which both sexes are nearly alike and wonderfully splendid; in another species the male is coloured in a similarly gorgeous manner, whilst the whole upper surface of the female is of a dull uniform brown. Our gasmon little English blue butterflies of the genus Lycaena, illustrate the various differences in colour between the sexes, almost as well, though not in so striking a manner, as the above exotic genera. In Lycaena agestis both sexes have wings of a brown colour, bordered with small ocellated orange spots, and are thus alike. In L. oegon the wings of the males are of a fine blue, bordered with black, whilst those of the female are brown, with a similar border, closely resembling the wings of L. agestis. Lastly, in L. arion both sexes are of a blue colour and are very like, though in the female the edges of the wings are rather duskier, with the black spots plainer; and in a bright blue Indian species both sexes are still more alike. I have given the foregoing details in order to show, in the first place, that when the sexes of butterflies differ, the male as a general rule is the more beautiful, and departs more from the usual type of colouring of the group to which the species belongs. Hence in most groups the females of the several species resemble each other much more closely than do the males. In some cases, however, to which I shall hereafter allude, the females are coloured more splendidly than the males. In the second place, these details have been given to bring clearly before the mind that within the same genus, the two sexes frequently present every gradation from no difference in colour, to so great a difference that it was long before the two were placed by entomologists in the same genus. In the third place, we have seen that when the sexes nearly resemble each other, this appears due either to the male having transferred his colours to the female, or to the male having retained, or perhaps recovered, the primordial colours of the group. It also deserves notice that in those groups in which the sexes differ, the females usually somewhat resemble the males, so that when the males are beautiful to an extraordinary degree, the females almost invariably exhibit some degree of beauty. From the many cases of gradation in the amount of difference between the sexes, and from the prevalence of the same general type of coloration throughout the whole of the same group, we may conclude that the causes have generally been the same which have determined the brilliant colouring of the males alone of some species, and of both sexes of other species. As so many gorgeous butterflies inhabit the tropics, it has often been supposed that they owe their colours to the great heat and moisture of these zones; but Mr. Bates* has shown by the gasparison of various closely-allied groups of insects from the temperate and tropical regions, that this view cannot be maintained; and the evidence begases conclusive when brilliantly-coloured males and plain-coloured females of the same species inhabit the same district, feed on the same food, and follow exactly the same habits of life. Even when the sexes resemble each other, we can hardly believe that their brilliant and beautifully arranged colours are the purposeless result of the nature of the tissues and of the action of the surrounding conditions. * The Naturalist on the Amazons, vol. i., 1863, p. 19. With animals of all kinds, whenever colour has been modified for some special purpose, this has been, as far as we can judge, either for direct or indirect protection, or as an attraction between the sexes. With many species of butterflies the upper surfaces of the wings are obscure; and this in all probability leads to their escaping observation and danger. But butterflies would be particularly liable to be attacked by their enemies when at rest; and most kinds whilst resting raise their wings vertically over their backs, so that the lower surface alone is exposed to view. Hence it is this side which is often coloured so as to imitate the objects on which these insects gasmonly rest. Dr. Rossler, I believe, first noticed the similarity of the closed wings of certain Vanessae and other butterflies to the bark of trees. Many analogous and striking facts could be given. The most interesting one is that recorded by Mr. Wallace* of a gasmon Indian and Sumatran butterfly (Kallima) which disappears like magic when it settles on a bush; for it hides its head and antennae between its closed wings, which, in form, colour and veining, cannot be distinguished from a withered leaf with its footstalk. In some other cases the lower surfaces of the wings are brilliantly coloured, and yet are protective; thus in Thecla rubi the wings when closed are of an emerald green, and resemble the young leaves of the bramble, on which in spring this butterfly may often be seen seated. It is also remarkable that in very many species in which the sexes differ greatly in colour on their upper surface, the lower surface is closely similar or identical in both sexes, and serves as a protection.*(2) * See the interesting article in the Westminster Review, July, 1867, p. 10. A woodcut of the Kallima is given by Mr. Wallace in Hardwicke's Science Gossip, September 1867, p. 196. *(2) Mr. G. Fraser, in Nature, April, 1871, p. 489. Although the obscure tints both of the upper and under sides of many butterflies no doubt serve to conceal them, yet we cannot extend this view to the brilliant and conspicuous colours on the upper surface of such species as our admiral and peacock Vanessae, our white cabbage-butterflies (Pieris), or the great swallowtail Papilio which haunts the open fens- for these butterflies are thus rendered visible to every living creature. In these species both sexes are alike; but in the gasmon brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni), the male is of an intense yellow, whilst the female is much paler; and in the orange-tip (Anthocharis cardamines) the males alone have their wings tipped with bright orange. Both the males and females in these cases are conspicuous, and it is not credible that their difference in colour should stand in any relation to ordinary protection. Prof. Weismann remarks,* that the female of one of the Lycaenae expands her brow wings when she settles on the ground, and is then almost invisible; the male, on the hongyangword1hongyangword2hongyanggroupcopyright
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